[113] After the British colonial rule in Sri Lanka ended, ethnic tension between the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils rose. The royal courts were mostly places of social gathering rather than places of dispensation of authority; they were centres for distribution of resources. In this article, we have compared India\'s 2 developed state Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Dravidian influence on early Vedic religion is evident; many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. and households comprising only unrelated persons. Most Tamils in India live in the state of Tamil Nadu. They aimed to set up an independent Tamil state, Tamil Eelam, for majority-Tamil regions in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan Tamils (or Ceylon Tamils) are descendants of the Tamils of the old Jaffna Kingdom and east coast chieftaincies called Vannimais. [citation needed], There are significant Tamil communities in other parts of India. Hart, G.L. [34], Various legends became prevalent after the 10th century CE regarding the antiquity of the Tamil people. [52] The Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras, and Pallavas were followers of Hinduism, though for a short while some of them seem to have embraced Jainism and later converted to Hinduism. [168] Munis are a group of guardian gods, who are worshiped by Tamils. The Aryachakaravarthi dynasty continued to rule over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom in 1619. Tamils account for at least one-sixth of the population in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These early kingdoms sponsored the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in Tamil. [150] In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai. In Singapore, Mauritius and Reunion, Tamil students learn Tamil as their second language in school. Tolkappiyam mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumal in Mullai-the forests, Korravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani. However, Indian history and archaeology have pushed the date back to the 15th century BCE, and in Sri Lanka, there is radiometric evidence from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occurs at least around the 9th or 10th century BCE. "Peopling of India." to Anuradhapura between the 7th and 11th centuries CE in such large numbers that local chiefs and kings trying to establish legitimacy came to rely on them. Significant populations reside in Karnataka (2.9 million), Maharashtra (1.4 million), Andhra Pradesh (1.2 million), Kerala (0.6 million) and the National Capital Region (0.1 million). [36] Still lower at the local level there were clan chiefs called "kizhar" or "mannar". Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million people, which ranks 6th in India. [45] These invaders are described as 'evil kings' and 'barbarians' coming from lands to the north of the Tamil country, but modern historians think they could have been hill tribes who lived north of Tamil country. In 2004, Tamil was the first of six to be designated as a classical language of India. Note: The Singapore Tamil population data excludes Tamils who were unable to speak and those in one-person households [89][90] In Mahavamsa, a historical poem, ethnic Tamil adventurers such as Elara invaded the island around 145 BCE. Population of Mumbai in 2013 Mumbai has experienced a massive growth in its population in the last 50 years. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamma. A 200 BCE Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period. The coastal areas of the island were taken over by the Dutch and then became part of the British Empire in 1796. The post-independence period and the Civil War, வாண்புகழ் மூவர். The Sangam legends also alluded to the antiquity of the Tamil people by claiming tens of thousands of years of continuous literary activity during three Sangams. [28] Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". [88] Historical records establish that Tamil kingdoms in modern India were closely involved in the island's affairs from about the 2nd century BCE. [152] The majority of Muslims in Tamil Nadu speak Tamil,[153] with less than 15% of them reporting Urdu as their mother tongue. King Krishna III, the last great Rashtrakuta king consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to the Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon. The Hoysalas, under Vira Someswara, were quick to intervene and this time they sided with the Pandyas and repulsed the Cholas in order to counter the latter's revival. The latter half of the 11th century saw the union of Chola and Vengi kingdoms under Kulottunga I. Ancient Tamil Sangam literature and grammatical works, Tolkappiyam; the ten anthologies, Pattuppāṭṭu; and the eight anthologies, Eá¹­á¹­uttokai also shed light on ancient Tamil people. [92][94][95][96] The Chola decline in Sri Lanka was followed by the restoration of the Polonnaruwa monarchy in the late 11th century CE. The Chola navy conquered the dominant Southeast Asian power, the Srivijaya Empire, and secured the sea trade route to China. [93], In the 9th and 10th centuries CE, Pandya and Chola incursions into Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century CE, after which Chola influence declined in Sri Lanka. 🛈Today's Message: For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, & the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. Here you can check the world Tamil population with the percentage. [151] [163] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory. The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as avārai. TNN | Apr 28, 2020, 07:19 IST. The people of Tamil Nadu play traditional sports and sports from other countries. Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World. The therukoothu, literally meaning "street play", is a form of village theater or folk opera. The Tamil martial arts also includes various types of weapons. A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well. HT Correspondent. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female soothsayer of the kurava tribe (people of hills and mountains), who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover. Table of Contents1 Tamil population by country1.1 You can also check Tamil […] [173] Since the early Sangam age, there was a warlike culture in South India. [61], Under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas became dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of South India and Sri Lanka. Periplus also indicates that the chief exports of the ancient Tamils were pepper, malabathrum, pearls, ivory, silk, spikenard, diamonds, sapphires, and tortoiseshell. The current metro area population of Mumbai in 2021 is 20,668,000, a 1.26% increase from 2020. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. [91] Tamil soldiers from what is now South India were brought[by whom?] He then defeated Kopperunjinga, the Kadava chieftain, and turned him into a vassal. The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. These wars resulted in a victory for the Cholas and led to the annexation of Gangavadi and Konkan regions. Silapathiharam, Tamil literature from the 2nd century CE, refers to the sale of Silamabam instructions, weapons and equipment to foreign traders. Most of these have emerged fairly recently, dating to the colonial and post-colonial periods, but some date back to the medieval period. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[207]. There were trade relationship between the Roman Empire and Pandyan Empire. Karpudayar mosque in Kayalpatnam, Old Jumma mosque in Kilakarai and Kazimar Big Mosque in Madurai are among the oldest mosques of Tamil Muslims in Tamil Nadu. Once south Indians were beaten up in Mumbai; now the city has a Tamil MLA!. Nilakanta Sastri's "History of South India"), K.A.N. [58] Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory in 642 by attacking and occupying Badami temporarily. [165], The most important Tamil festivals are Pongal, a harvest festival that occurs in mid-January, and Varudapirappu, the Tamil New Year, which occurs on 14 April. As of 2018[update] Tamils made up 25% of the population of Sri Lanka. [177], The Wootz steel originated in South India and Sri Lanka. [66] The Chola empire remained formidable during the reign of Kulottunga and maintained its influence over the various kingdoms of Southeast Asia like the Sri Vijaya empire. The painting's base is made of cloth and coated with zinc oxide, over which the image is painted using dyes; it is then decorated with semi-precious stones, as well as silver or gold thread. Kanchan Sinha, Kartikeya in Indian art and literature, Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan (1979). [183][184] The Chinese and locals in Sri Lanka adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel from the Chera Tamils by the 5th century BCE. [132] It is a Dravidian language, with little relation to the Indo-European languages of northern India. Some Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu like MG Ramachandran, Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa have their background in the Tamil film industry. [122] By the 1990s, most Indian Tamils had received Sri Lankan citizenship. [160] There are also many followers of Ayyavazhi in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts. The Hindu festival Deepavali is celebrated with fanfare; other local Hindu festivals include Thaipusam, Panguni Uttiram, and Adiperukku. [202], Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based on older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis. After the collapse of Vijayanagara in 1646, Tamil Nadu was dominated by small states like the Madurai Nayaks. The Pandya then turned his attention to the north and annexed Kanchi by killing the Telugu chief Vijaya Gandagopala. The burning of Jaffna library in 1981 and Black July in 1983 finally led to over 25 years of war between the Sri Lankan army and the Tamil Tigers, in which both sides committed numerous atrocities. [174] Heroic martyrdom was glorified in ancient Tamil literature. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'. [149] The temples of the Sangam days, mainly of Madurai, seem to have had priestesses to the deity, who also appear predominantly as goddesses. ), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 22:35. The Tamil cuisine in Sri Lanka differs little from that of South India. [192], The most important form of Tamil painting is Tanjore painting, which originated in Thanjavur in the 9th century. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India, Henry Yule, A.C. Burnell, Kate Teltscher (2013), p. 442. Ceylon remained in political union with India until India's independence in 1947; it gained independence the following year, as Sri Lanka, with both Sinhalese and Tamil populations. The 12th century Arab traveler Edrisi mentioned the "Hinduwani" or Indian steel as the best in the world. The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art. Even the Kadava chief, Kopperunjinga, rebelled against his Chola overlord, Rajaraja III, and asserted his independence. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Tamils in Sri Lanka are classified into three ethnicities by the, Lockard: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. [44], The classical period ended around the 4th century CE with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions. [60] The Pallava dynasty was overthrown in the 9th century by the imperial Kannada Rashtrakutas who ruled from Gulbarga. In D. Balasubramanian and N. Appaji Rao (eds.). [155] Atheist, rationalist, and humanist philosophies are also adhered by sizeable minorities.[156]. In Tamil Nadu, Christians and Muslims account for 6% and 5.8% respectively. Dharavi is a locality in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, considered to be one of Asia's largest slums. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization … There is epigraphic evidence of people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas (the Prakrit word for Tamil people) in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata, and other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BCE. [170] According to George L. Hart, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or literary assemblies was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition. With Chennai's Marina Beach as the nerve-centre, protests are going across the country and pockets with Tamil population in the world against the ban. [199], Ancient Tamil works, such as the Cilappatikaram, describe a system of music,[200] and a 7th-century Pallava inscription at Kudimiyamalai contains one of the earliest surviving examples of Indian music in notation. [30], Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern-day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur in Thoothukudi District[31][32][33] which conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature. According to Iraiyanar Agapporul, a 10th/11th century annotation on the Sangam literature, the Tamil country extended southwards beyond the natural boundaries of the Indian peninsula comprising 49 ancient nadus (divisions). The area west of the Western Ghats became increasingly politically distinct from the Eastern parts ruled by Chola and Pandya Dynasties[74] Kerala was until 9th century, culturally and linguistically part of Tamilakam, with the local Koduntamil evolving to Malayalam. "Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658–1796". 11, Dennis Kennedy "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, Publisher:Oxford University Press. Strategies planned to fight illegal wildlife trade in Mumbai Metropolitan Region mumbai Updated: Dec 11, 2020, 00:07 IST. They conquered the coastal areas around the Bay of Bengal and turned it into a Chola lake. Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)". [49] Later, they are mentioned in the Mauryan Empire's Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273–232 BCE) inscriptions, among the kingdoms, which though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly and allied terms with him. "Early Evidence for Caste in South India." Not too long back, Tamil dons ruled the underworld of Bombay, as Mumbai was known then. [224] Rice has great importance in Tamil culture. Representative image. The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. Over many centuries a fusion of, Pieris, P.E. In M.M. [123], Many Tamils still live in these countries, and the Tamil communities in Singapore, Reunion Island, Malaysia and South Africa have retained much of their original culture and language. Union health secretary Rajesh Bhushan said there has been a sustained decline in COVID-19 cases in India since mid-September. pp 99–100, Hilda Ellis Davidson. [118] There also exists a significant Muslim population in Sri Lanka who are speakers of the Tamil language. Throughout the 15th and 16th century the Vijayanagara Empire was the dominant power of South India and sponsored many Tamil literary works. [208] The modern Tamil film industry originated during the 20th century. Rasam replaces soup in Tamil cuisine. Salunkhe added that while … It was accentuated by the resurgence of Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216-1238 CE)[62] The waning Chola fortunes resulted in a three-way fight for the Tamil regions between the Pandyas, the Hoysalas and the Kakatiyas. [167] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. The land was supposed to have been destroyed by a deluge. It's not a translation but tells the story in a different perspective. [115] The Sri Lankan government allegedly committed war crimes against the civilian Sri Lankan Tamil people during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009, when the leader of the Tigers, Prabhakaran, was killed. "Peopling of India." [50][51] The king of Kalinga, Kharavela, who ruled around 150 BCE, is mentioned in the famous Hathigumpha inscription of the confederacy of the Tamil kingdoms that had existed for over 100 years. These Sangam poems paint the picture of a fertile land and of a people who were organised into various occupational groups. [53] After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, the Tamil kingdoms were allied with the Satavahana Dynasty. The metro area population of Mumbai in 2019 was … An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron, then heated and hammered to be rid of slag. [81] Settlements of people culturally similar to those of present-day Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu in modern India were excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu on the west coast and in Kathiraveli on the east coast of the island, with villages established between the 5th century BCE and 2nd century CE. Tamil Eelam is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to establish in the north and east of Sri Lanka. While the Marakkayar and Kayalar sects claim descent from the Arab world, the Rowther and Lebbai sects claim descent from the Turkic world. Theatrical culture flourished among Tamils during the classical age. Sastri, "A History of South India", OUP (1955) p. 105, Chopra, Ravindran and Subramanian (2003), p. 74 part 1, Singapore in Global History by Derek Thiam Soon Heng, Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied p.40, Upon arrival in June 1799, Sir Hugh Cleghorn, the island's first British colonial secretary, wrote to the British government of the traits and antiquity of the Tamil nation on the island in the, Sri Lanka: Current Issues and Historical Background (2002), Walter Nubin, p. 87, sfn error: no target: CITEREFde_Silva1987 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBasham1967 (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFKrishnamurti2003 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLockard2007 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHiltebeitel2007 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFTiwari2002 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFZimmer1951 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLarson1995 (. The metro area population of Mumbai in 2020 was 20,411,000, a 1.12% increase from 2019. The Indian Tamils (or Hill Country Tamils) are descendants of bonded laborers who migrated from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka in the 19th century to work on tea plantations. [102], The caste structure of the majority Sinhalese has also accommodated Hindu immigrants from South India since the 13th century CE. Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. Delhi government’s Department of Art, Culture, and Language on Sunday set-up a Tamil academy to promote the language and culture of the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Dharavi has an area of just over 2.1 square kilometres (0.81 sq mi; 520 acres) and a population of about 1,000,000. This led to the emergence of three new Sinhalese caste groups: the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava. [209] Films from Kollywood entertain audiences not only in India but also overseas Tamil diaspora. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention of Damila-rattha (Tamil dynasty). Tamil films from Chennai have been distributed to various overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Malaysia, Japan, Oceania, the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. The names of the three dynasties, Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras, are mentioned in Tamil Sangam literature and grammatical works like Tolkappiyar refers to them as the "Three Glorified by Heaven", (Tamil: à®µà®¾à®£à¯à®ªà¯à®•à®´à¯ மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ MÅ«var ?). One of the Tamil folk dances is karakattam. [82][83] Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archeologists to the 10th century BCE. Mattu Vandy Elgai Panthayam (Reckla Race): Gadgil, M. & Joshi, N.V. & Shambu Prasad, U.V. Mumbai is the capital city of Maharashtra. The Tamil version is smaller than the original Ramayana written by Valmiki. In P. Hockings (ed.). MUMBAI TAMIL SANGHAM has won accolades from one and all for its various cultural and educational activities.They include-Lingual integration : conducting of Marathi classes for Non Maharastrians Tamil classes for others including Tamilians who do not know to read and write Tamil. The most populated city in the southern districts rajendra Chola III who succeeded Rajaraja III was a self-sacrifice of hero... Was also seen as the supreme God, alcohol, drugs and to have been derived from ancient... Literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an image of the Tamils, regardless of religion was to! Living in each country were the chieftains of the 11th century saw the union territory Puducherry! 2Nd century CE ] Films from Kollywood entertain audiences not only in India live in the light of archaeological linguistic..., then heated and hammered to be around 4 per cent of the martial! Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in art idli, and rose along with the dynasty. 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( 1997 ) p. 114 Tamil area religion lost its importance in the 9th by! Muslims across Tamil Nadu, Christians tamil population in mumbai Muslims account for at least two embassies were sent to the caste... The best in the politics of the country and the Khmer Empire the annexation Gangavadi... Jataka story known as Avipalli, Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi, Vatakkiruttal Punkilithu. Prof. A. Chakravartis [ 203 tamil population in mumbai the kuravanci is a type of dance-drama, by... Northern India. % of the voters in Mumbai Metropolitan Region Mumbai Updated: Dec 11, 2020, IST!

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